Category: Penetration Testing


Nemesis is a command-line network packet crafting and injection utility for UNIX-like and Windows systems. Nemesis, is well suited for testing Network Intrusion Detection Systems, firewalls, IP stacks and a variety of other tasks. As a command-line driven utility, Nemesis is perfect for automation and scripting.

Nemesis can natively craft and inject ARP, DNS, ETHERNET, ICMP, IGMP, IP, OSPF, RIP, TCP and UDP packets. Using the IP and the Ethernet injection modes, almost any custom packet can be crafted and injected.

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Lynis is an auditing tool for Unix (specialists). It scans the system and available software, to detect security issues. Beside security related information it will also scan for general system information, installed packages and configuration mistakes.

This is a tool that might be useful for both penetration testers performing white box tests and system admins trying to secure their own systems.

This software aims in assisting automated auditing, software patch management, vulnerability and malware scanning of Unix based systems. It can be run without prior installation, so inclusion on read only storage is no problem (USB stick, cd/dvd).

While the adoption of web applications for conducting online business has enabled companies to connect seamlessly with their customers, it has also exposed a number of security concerns stemming from improper coding. Vulnerabilities in web applications allow hackers to gain direct and public access to sensitive information (e.g. personal data, login credentials).

Web applications allow visitors to submit and retrieve data to/from a database over the Internet. Databases are the heart of most web applications. They hold data needed for web applications to deliver specific content to visitors and provide information to customers, suppliers etc.

SQL Injection is perhaps the most common web-application hacking technique which attempts to pass SQL commands through a web application for execution by the back-end database. The vulnerability is presented when user input is incorrectly sanitized and thereby executed.

The very first stage of hacking is PAG i.e Passive Attack Gathering.  In plain English we collect all the information about our victim network or a system for planning the attack. Remember following things are explained for a penetration testing scenario & not for hacking actual hacking.  So don’t misuse this information, I will not be responsible for anything you do with it.

What type of information we need in Pre attack stage  ?

If you are planning to intruding in some network, you’ll need following information.